Design and development of heater control circuit without temperature sensor for monitoring hydrogen in argon

A thin film based tin oxide sensor is developed to monitor low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 5 to 75 ppm) in the cover gas plenum of the fast breeder test reactor. The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate, and necessary electrical leads are incorporated into it. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350 °C. This paper gives an outline of the electronics developed to measure the sensor signal and to control the heater temperature.
The major challenge in this work is that there was no provision for embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to physical constraints. This constrained the maintenance of a constant heater temperature for the proper functioning of the sensor. This led us to develop and demonstrate a heater control circuit without a temperature sensor to maintain a fixed temperature for monitoring hydrogen in argon, and electronics for the above-mentioned circuitry is discussed.

ERC-ESICM guidelines on temperature control after cardiac arrest in adults

  • The aim of these guidelines is to provide evidence‑based guidance for temperature control in adults who are comatose after resuscitation from either in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, regardless of the underlying cardiac rhythm. These guidelines replace the recommendations on temperature management after cardiac arrest included in the 2021 post-resuscitation care guidelines co-issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).
  • The guideline panel included thirteen international clinical experts who authored the 2021 ERC-ESICM guidelines and two methodologists who participated in the evidence review completed on behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) of whom ERC is a member society. We followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the certainty of evidence and grade recommendations. The panel provided suggestions on guideline implementation and identified priorities for future research. The certainty of evidence ranged from moderate to low.
  • In patients who remain comatose after cardiac arrest, we recommend continuous monitoring of core temperature and actively preventing fever (defined as a temperature > 37.7 °C) for at least 72 h. There was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against temperature control at 32-36 °C or early cooling after cardiac arrest. We recommend not actively rewarming comatose patients with mild hypothermia after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) to achieve normothermia. We recommend not using prehospital cooling with rapid infusion of large volumes of cold intravenous fluids immediately after ROSC.

Thermal Model of an Omnimagnet for Performance Assessment and Temperature Control

An Omnimagnet is an electromagnetic device that enables remote magnetic manipulation of devices such as medical implants and microrobots. It is composed of three orthogonal nested solenoids with a ferromagnetic core at the center. Electrical current within the solenoids leads to undesired temperature increase within the Omnimagnet. If the temperature exceeds the melting point of the wire insulation, device failure may occur. Thus, a study of heat transfer within an Omnimagnet is a necessity, particularly to maximize the performance of the device. A transient heat transfer model that incorporates all three heat transfer modes is proposed and experimentally validated with an average normalized root-mean-square error of less than 4% (data normalized by temperature in degree celsius). The transient model is not computationally expensive and is applicable to Omnimagnets with different structures. The code is applied to calculate the maximum safe operational time at a fixed input current or the maximum safe input current for a fixed time interval. The maximum safe operational time and maximum safe input current depend on size and structure of the Omnimagnet and the lowest critical temperature of all the Omnimagnet materials. A parametric study shows that increasing convective heat transfer during cooling, and during heating with low input currents, is an effective method to increase the maximum operational time of the Omnimagnet. The thermal model is also presented in a state-space equation format that can be used in a real-time Kalman filter current controller to avoid device failure due to excessive heating.

Integrated Temperature and Position Sensors in a Shape-Memory Driven Soft Actuator for Closed-Loop Control

Soft actuators are a promising option for the advancing fields of human-machine interaction and dexterous robots in complex environments. Shape memory alloy wire actuators can be integrated into fiber rubber composites for highly deformable structures. For autonomous, closed-loop control of such systems, additional integrated sensors are necessary. In this work, a soft actuator is presented that incorporates fiber-based actuators and sensors to monitor both deformation and temperature.
The soft actuator showed considerable deformation around two solid body joints, which was then compared to the sensor signals, and their correlation was analyzed. Both, the actuator as well as the sensor materials were processed by braiding and tailored fiber placement before molding with silicone rubber. Finally, the novel fiber-rubber composite material was used to implement closed-loop control of the actuator with a maximum error of 0.5°.

Surface temperature controls the pattern of post-earthquake landslide activity

The patterns and controls of the transient enhanced landsliding that follows strong earthquakes remain elusive. Geostatistical models can provide clues on the underlying processes by identifying relationships with a number of physical variables. These models do not typically consider thermal information, even though temperature is known to affect the hydro-mechanical behavior of geomaterials, which, in turn, controls slope stability. Here, we develop a slope unit-based multitemporal susceptibility model for the epicentral region of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake to explore how land surface temperature (LST) relates to landslide patterns over time. 3
We find that LST can explain post-earthquake landsliding while it has no visible effect on the coseismic scene, which is dominated by the strong shaking. Specifically, as the landscape progressively recovers and landslide rates decay to pre-earthquake levels, a positive relationship between LST and landslide persistence emerges. This seems consistent with the action of healing processes, capable of restoring the thermal sensitivity of the slope material after the seismic disturbance. Although analyses in other contexts (not necessarily seismic) are warranted, we advocate for the inclusion of thermal information in geostatistical modeling as it can help form a more physically consistent picture of slope stability controls.

Stuart Temperature Controller SCT1

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Heidolph Electronic Temperature Controller EKT SS Sensor

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External Temperature Probe

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pt1000 temperature compensator

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pt1000 temperature compensator

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IKA PT1000.70 Temperature Probe

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pt1000 temperature compensator, s8

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